The Omani people celebrate the National forty-second Day on the eighteenth of November. They build Oman by their strong will and sincere determination in their developmental process with well-studied steps to build
a bright present and great future under the leadership of Sultan Qaboos bin Said, who led the Oman march by skill and abilities.
Over the years of the modern Omani Renaissance, the Omani citizen constitutes the driving force of the movement at all levels and fields in the Omani society. The deep trust and permanent care from Sultan Qaboos bin Said represent a fundamental pillar of the national development. His Majesty refers to his speech on the occasion of the opening of the fifth term of the Council of Oman in Hisn Al Shumookh in Al Dakhiliya Governorate on October 31st, 2011, saying “We have always stressed our constant interest on the development of human resources and mentioned it a top priority in our plans and programs. Man is the cornerstone of development in every developmental construction, a hub which revolves around him all kinds of development. The purpose of all is the happiness and provides a decent livelihood to him and ensuring his security and integrity”
Therefore all sectors of the society had received a permanent interest directly from Sultan Qaboos bin Said especially the young people sector who receives the special care since they represent the largest segment in terms of numbers in the Omani society and also considered as a strength of the present and hope for the future. The Sultan of Oman has pointed to that through his speech: “The young are the present of the nation and its future, so we gave them the interest and care they deserve over the years of the Blessed Renaissance, also the government has sought hard to provide educational opportunities and training, rehabilitation and employment to them. The next stage will witness more attention through creating more opportunities for young people to strengthen their capabilities in science and knowledge and strengthen their capabilities in innovation, production and increasing participation in the comprehensive development process”.
From this viewpoint the Sultanate's interest in education and providing various skills and knowledge to contribute in the building of the qualified human resources to meet needs of the country in the present and future. So, the budget allocated for the development of the faculty and all fields of education was raised to more than three times from the academic year 2011/2012 in a bid to support training programs for teaching bodies and other associated jobs to improve the quality of educational performance and development in schools. Furthermore, it established a national center for educational evaluation for exams starting from the academic year 2011/2012, which aims at developing measurement tools and educational assessment as major themes of the educational system. The center provides true indicators to assess the level of student achievement in different levels of education from 1 to 12 grades. In addition, it helps to build the Bank of vocabulary test quality that contributes to determine the real educational performance for students, and benefit from its results and analysis the difficulties facing the student and its effect on their academic achievement to tackle them.
Moreover, the National Centre for Professional Guidance is one of authorities that provides the direct guideline services for the students, and help him to select his study materials according to his wishes with the appropriate programs in higher education institutions and the needs of the labour market. It puts qualifying and training programs for administrators and vocational guidance specialists. The Royal Directives of Sultan Qaboos bin Said come to increase absorption in higher education to achieve a leap in the higher education, and providing an opportunity for a greater number of outputs of the General Education Diploma to engage in the academic study.
A'Shura in Oman grants wider powers to strengthen parliamentary performance
The wheel of construction and development in the Sultanate enters third forty year with a new achievement in the society and to achieve stability and tranquility for the citizen and nation, and to maintain the national achievements. The Omani citizen is the vital goal of the development in every cultural, social and economic fields. The Sultan of Oman is keen to remain the Omani citizens as a real partner of the government in the development progress for serving his society. The establishment of the Council of Oman (The State Council and the Majlis A'Shura) is an evidence of the improvement for the society and citizen and an opportunity to meet with his people directly in their governorates and villages.
The speech of the Sultan of Oman came in the opening of the fifth term of the Council of Oman, on October 31st, 2011, to affirm the phased approach, to establish the structure of the A'Shura “upholding the pillars on fixed rules and solid foundations to ensure its normal development that meets the requirements of each stage of the national action and to respond to the needs of the community and keep pace with the future vision, as well as the promising and executive steps, their aspirations to further contribute and participate in making appropriate decisions that serve the best interests of the homeland and citizens”
The Council of Oman consists from the State Council, which His Majesty appoints its members among the best experiences of Oman. In the Majlis A'Shura, citizens elect Omani representatives for the Majlis. It legislates a range of legislative powers, recommendations, suggestions and studies for the benefits of the citizen and country.
The Royal Decree No. (99/2011) issued on 19th October 2011 came to amend some provisions of the Basic Law of the State to affirm the constant approach to improve performance, and sincerely translate the will of His Majesty in expanding the powers of the Council of Oman as per the Royal Decree No. (39/2011) issued on 12th March 2011 on granting the Council of Oman legislative and oversight powers.
On the foreign activity, the State Council is keen to build bridges of communication and support bilateral relations with the Arab and international parliaments, and with the Arab, regional and international parliamentary unions. .
The seventh term of the Majlis A'Shura is considered as an important station in the march of the Shura when the Omani experience moved towards advanced steps in the practice of integrated parliamentary work and the State of Establishments and Law was enhanced and the partnership between the Council and the government was evolved. In this period, the work of A'Shura give the Council more legislative and oversight powers.
In light of this, the Majlis A'Shura witnessed many active variables when the Majlis elected a chairman from its members as the first actual practice of the new powers. The Majlis was granted wider powers on the participation in the study projects of the State's General Budget and the five-year development plans, as well as studying the economic and social agreements that the Government intends to sign or join, besides enjoying the right of questioning service ministers in issues pertaining to their powers.
By the issuance of the municipal councils law according to the Royal Decree No. (116/2011) issued on 26th October 2011, the Sultanate has completed a new administrative step by converting regions to governorates, organizing the work of governors towards decentralization, and giving the civil human scale to do the needed work of development.
The municipal councils launch a new phase of popular participation and integration between the community and the government's institutions. It integrates with the role of the Majlis A'Shura in drawing developmental plans.
Moreover, the municipal councils will contribute to raise the solidarity between the responsible agencies and community representatives to achieve the comprehensive development, as well as contributing in the success of plans and the national programs. His Majesty pointed in his speech at the opening of the fifth term of the Council of Oman in 2011, saying: “The collaboration and solidarity between all the responsible agencies and direct coordination between its departments and the exchange of opinion and advice between those who made it is the way that leads to the success of national programs in the performance of its desired in the overall development and the achievement of its objectives near and far in the service of present and future generations”
There are many functions of the municipal councils, namely providing opinions and recommendations on the development of municipal services in each governorate, such as constructing and improving roads, organizing streets, beaches and public utilities, proposing recommendations related to the public health, protecting the environment against pollution, protecting beaches from erosion and pollution, proposing projects of water, roads, parks, wastewater, school, health centers sites and other public facilities and services for the citizens.
Oman is a state of establishments
The efforts of national development aim to build a modern state and a state of establishments as it is a fundamental axes of the modern state's achievements. His Majesty the Sultan laid the foundations of the modern state to cope with the age of science and knowledge and maintain its authenticity and originality. In addition, in 2012 the modern Omani judiciary enjoyed a complete independence, the institutional construction of the state of establishments and law. The Basic Law of the State issued by the Royal Decree No. (101/96) on 11.06.1996 is the strong foundation that the Sultanate is launched to achieve more prosperity and stability. The Basic Law of the State represents the basic legal framework that moves the Omani society to develop, and from which the State's various apparatuses derive its work bases and roles.
The Basic Law of the State consists of 81 items divided into seven chapters. This historic document has specified the system of ruling in the state, and the steering principles for its policies in different areas. It is also showed public rights and duties of citizens and separated the special provisions to the head of the state, the Council of Ministers and the judiciary.
Affirming the importance of the participation of all members of the society in the process of comprehensive development, some provisions of the Basic Law of the State were amended as per the Royal Decree No. (99/2011) issued on 19th October 2011. The new amendments give legislative and oversight powers to the State Council and the Majlis A'Shura.
The sovereignty of law and facilitating litigation
The just judiciary enjoyed an important place within the interest of Sultan Qaboos bin Said, Head of the Supreme Judicial Council in a manner that suits the position it represents as one the most important benefits of the modern state. His Majesty affirmed in his speech during the convening of the fifth term of the Council of Oman in 2011,”The justice must take its course and be our goal in the development of the judicial and regulatory institutions in order to achieve our aspirations to establish the state of establishments. We support the judiciary and its independence as this is our duty and respect its decisions without favoritism because everyone is equal before the law”.
The two Royal Decrees No. (9/2012) and No. (10/2012) issued on February 29th, 2012, on the Supreme Judicial Council organizing the administration of judiciary affairs came to translate the principal of the state of establishments and law.
Within the same context, the sultanate is considered the second Arab country that grants the judicial authority full independence from the executive authority, which reflects the interest of His Majesty on the judicial authority for the sake of achieving interest of the country and the citizen.
As the Basic Law of the State ensures the independence and integrity of the judiciary, it makes the Sultanate one of the best twentieth judicial systems in the world in terms of the standards of performance, quality and good organization. The judicial authority in the Sultanate is also the first one in the Arab countries in the independence and impartiality. The judicial system in the Sultanate enjoys full independence in decision-making and issuing provisions that said in Article (60) of the Basic Law of the State "The judiciary is independent, and the courts of different kinds and degrees issued all judgments according to the law”.
Security to achieve national development
Oman is a fertile environment for security, safety and stability in this vital region of the world. The Sultanate achieved advanced rank in the Global Peace Index as it is the most secure country in the Middle East and Africa, and also it came in the fourth rank on the Arab and the forty-one in the worldwide.
Tolerance is the prominent feature of Oman Personality
The Omani identity is characterized by the ability to communicate with others. It embodies in the interrelationships, interdependence and cohesion between the Omani societies that is a fundamental pedestal of the prosperity. The Sultanate relationships with other nations are based on dialogue, friendship and respect for freedom of religion and belief.
The Omanis share to spread Islam in East Africa, the countries overlooking the Arabian Sea and the Indian Ocean through their trade and large marine activity. They spread Islam by their tolerance, kindness, the ability of their understanding of various civilizations in opinion, religion and culture in general. Besides, Oman always calls for understanding and freedom of thought and belief, thus a religious tolerance constitutes a characteristic trait of the Renaissance in Oman.
Therefore, His Majesty asserts in his speech at the opening of the fifth term of the Council of Oman, on 31st October 2011 that: ”The multiple thought is not mix with intolerance, so that help to build generations and promoting homelands and progressing of societies”.
The Basic Law of the State has ensured personal freedoms and allows its practice within the law, the article (28) said: “freedom to practice religious rites in accordance with the customs is based on public order or morals “. Likewise, the Omani personal status law guarantees non-Muslims, residents of the Sultanate by right to application of the provisions of their own.
The Sultanate is keen to correct understanding of Islam religion far from committed that led to spread of incorrect stereotypes to Islam and Muslims, and expand cultural and civilization exchanges among peoples. The series of exhibitions of “Religious Tolerance in Oman” which was launched in April 2011 came from inspiration of our religion to show the Sultanate's experience on coexistence, tolerance and understanding among civilizations. Also, it enhances bridges of understanding and friendship between peoples, and provides an atmosphere of tolerance and religious coexistence and freedom to practice religious beliefs for the citizen and resident.
As per the Royal orders of the Sultan Qaboos Centre for Islamic Culture, which is one of the facilities of the Sultan Qaboos Grand Mosque, organizes one week of rapprochement and humanitarian harmony during the period from (5th to 9th February 2012) that aims to serve understanding and religious harmony and to facilitate communication between human cultures in order to achieve convergence.
The Sultan Qaboos scientific chairs in a number of the most famous universities of USA, Europe, Asia and Australia play a vital role in the study of Arab and Islamic civilization and deepen the foundations of dialogue between religions. In addition, the cultural institutions and centers in different areas in the world activate the convergence between peoples and cultures. For example, the Sultan Qaboos Centre in Washington plays an active role in the communication and interaction with American society. And, the cultural Lebanese Omani Center in Beirut is considered a beacon of thought and culture at the regional and international levels.
Foreign policy of the Sultanate of Oman
The foreign policy of the Sultanate reflects the personal Omani features and the historical experience with wise leadership. This policy builds bridges of friendship, opens prospects for cooperation and good relations with various countries according to the firm foundations of mutual respect and respect neighbourly relations. As per these foundations, the Sultanate managed to build close relationships with states and other nations. Therefore, foreign Omani policy become as field to support the efforts of economic and social development and to achieve peace, stability and tranquility. It is marked by clarity in dealing with others.
On the Gulf level the relations between the Sultanate and neighboring countries in the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) was distinguished in its privacy. They share on the same interests and hopes to build a better life for their people in the present and the future. There are many plans and programs between them to develop cooperation and integration between the countries of the Gulf Cooperation Council for the Arab Gulf States. Also, they build mutual interests to achieve a Gulf citizenship.
On the Arab level, the Sultanate's policies become on the high level in contribution of solving various Arab issues. The Sultanate promotes the Arab work and expands the cooperation between brothers and investment potentials available to achieve a better life for the peoples of all Arab. Additionally, it supports the Arab League and its various work institutions to achieve a comprehensive Arab renaissance in various fields.
The Omani relations with the United States, Britain and the European Union are characterized by strong relationships in all areas. The Sultanate participates in the work of the General Assembly of the United Nations, which was held in September 2012, has confirmed the Sultanate in its fair stances of the Omani policy towards regional and international developments. It also made an effort to improve the road safety in the world.
Likewise, the Omani-Asian relations are diverse. In Expo Yeosu exhibition 2012, the Omani pavilion focuses on protecting the marine wealth that has won widespread attention and a large turnout. It transfers all features of human Omani heritage and traditional Omani environment.
In the area of human rights, the Sultanate managed to establish the appropriate legal basic structure at the national level in a bid to implant human rights principles as part of its national legislations and institutions. The Sultanate's universal period review affirms its commitment to international standards in the field of human rights as its national report enjoyed an international commendation on 26th January 2011 before the Human Rights Council.
The Sultanate signed in 2010 on privileges of the International Atomic Energy Agency and its cooperative agreement for Arab states in Asia for research and development in the field of nuclear science and technology.
In the area of international conventions, the Sultanate joins a number of international conventions including the Convention for the Suppression of the Financing of Terrorism, and the Istanbul Convention for the temporary entry.
The Omani diplomacy contributes in the service of national development, and provides a picture of the Sultanate to reflect the present development and the progress in various fields.
Within this context, the joint businessmen councils are active and the Chamber of Commerce and Industry participates in the membership of the Sultanate's visiting delegation to other countries. Also, friendship associations and commissions’ dialogue and strategic understanding are active with several friendly countries. Many economic and trade relations recorded broad activity with many countrie, such as Japan and even Brazil. The Sultanate has diplomatic relations with more than 150 countries in the world, and participates in the membership of more than 105 regional and international organizations.
Oman Media is one of the fruits of the modern Renaissance march, and also it interacts with the aspirations of the Omani citizen in the bright present. His Majesty the Sultan stressed the importance of the media means because it is “the mirror that reflects what is happening in the country and this mirror must be clear and pure with itself and with others”. His Majesty's message is pure mirror of what is happening in the development efforts in various fields. Therefore, the Omani media plays a positive role to be a bridge of communication with friends, supporting dialogue and honestly expressing the Sultanate's policies and stances to reflect all traits of the Omani personality.
Stability of the economy in the Sultanate of Oman
During 2012, the Sultanate focused on a number of economic goals like the total economic stability. The total economic stability tackles the major issues in the state including inflation and the rate of jobseekers. It also seeks to increase the welfare of the community by achieving stability in the general level of prices, providing jobs, justice in the distribution of income and achieving the possible amount of the gross domestic product (GDP) and the national economy.
The State's General Budget for 21012 strives to achieve a balance between income and expenditure, provide more job opportunities for citizens, and give greater attention to education and training and maintaining the inflation rate in the same level in 2011, and continue to implement the strategy of economic diversification, and support the non-oil productive sectors including expanding the productive base of the economy and job creation, and complete the implementation of infrastructure projects, such as airports, ports and roads.
The Sultanate paid a special attention to the social aspect through boosting the spending on education training and employment, health, housing, water and improving the standard of living of citizens, as well as encouraging the private investment both domestic and foreign, as well as encouraging the establishment of small and medium enterprises with providing the stimulating investment environment and providing facilities, material, non-material and procedural incentives. In addition, it focuses on the partnership between the private and the government sectors to establish large production projects that bring the added value to the economy in terms of income and employment opportunities.
The Sultanate adopted the financial decisions in 2011 to improve the living conditions of citizens and raised its estimates of the volume of expected expenditure in the eighth five-year plan (2011 - 2015) to reach RO 54 billion compared to RO 43 billion estimated at the beginning of the plan. Likewise, the total additional obligations were also raised about RO 11 billion including RO 9 billion for ongoing expenses and civil security and RO 2 billion for developmental projects.
In international reports, the Sultanate's economic policies received an international praise reflecting its good infrastructure, macroeconomic stability and the level of healthcare and education. The Sultanate obtained the eighth level in Arab world and 89 globally in the Human Development Index for 2011 issued by the United Nations Developmental Program.
Besides, the Sultanate achieved the fourth place in the Arab level and 32 globally in Global Competitiveness Report for 2011 - 2012, which included 142 countries. In this report, the Sultanate ranked 16th globally in institutional framework. It achieved the third place globally in the general economic climate and ranked 28th in the infrastructure and was ranked the 23rd in the efficiency of markets, and ranked 30th in the efficiency of the capital market index.
In the economic freedom report in 2011, the Sultanate ranked 28th internationally classified within the best top thirty countries that enjoy economic freedom in the world. The Sultanate ranked fifth in Arab Networked Readiness Index for 2012 as part of the report of the Global Information Technology issued by the World Economic Forum.
The Sultanate has worked to attract the investment over the past years by finding a suitable climate to attract foreign investments and stimulate domestic businessmen. It improves the economic environment and creates encouraging incentives because this vital sector is considered as one of the tributaries that the Sultanate relies on in the area of economic diversification.
The Sultanate enjoys many investment features, which has enabled it to attract domestic and foreign investment, including security, political stability, and the application of a free economic system. It allows foreigners to own projects by up to 100% without any restrictions on the transfer of funds to the outside, and there is no tax on the income of individuals. Also, it unifies the tax treatment to all companies, both Omani and foreign institutions to be 12% annually.
Stemming from the importance of promoting the role of the private sector in the development, the Sultanate sought to join bilateral conventions that allow increasing commercial exchange with many countries of the world and encourage mutual investment. The Free Trade Agreement with the United States and the Sultanate's membership in the World Trade Organization contribute to increase the trade exchange with various countries of the world.
The Sultanate promotes its relations with different countries through a system called "Circuit Investor Services" at the Ministry of Commerce and Industry. The number of services it render reach more than 40 services.
Economic zones in the Sultanate
The Sultanate of Oman began in 2011 a new phase in the establishment of free zones through establishing the Special Economic Zone Authority in A'Duqum, which was established by the Royal Decree No. (119/2011) issued on 26th October 2011. This free zone adds new national economy through massive projects. It includes an economic facilities and multiple services like commercial port, dry dock for ship repair, fishing marina, tourist areas, modern city, an international airport and the railway linking A'Duqum with neighboring regions, including the GCC countries and the Middle East. Besides, the Special Economic Zone Authority at A'Duqum was designed to be a city based on the principles of environmental sustainability with renewable energy technologies
Job opportunities will increase to 20 thousand direct and indirect jobs in 2020, in addition to attracting USD 6 billion of foreign and domestic investment. The Al Wusta Governorate will have a modern city with capacity energy of about 100 thousand. It is characterized by a modern lifestyle with residential, commercial and recreational areas. It will add large spaces for gardens, parks and beaches. The work on the development of the Special Economic Zone Authority at A'Duqum began in mid-2007 with project to build a commercial port. The zone management look forward to make it as one of the commercial and industrial and international tourist hubs.
Up to now, there are three free zones in Oman including Al Mazyounnah zone, which is located in the Dhofar Governorate near the Yemeni border and started operating in November 1999. The free zone in Salalah is established in 2006 and has been able to attract direct foreign investment.
The future vision of the free zone in Salalah focuses to make it a globally and regionally center to attract investments and to diversify sources of income and create new job opportunities for citizens. Also, it focuses on attracting vital projects in the field of logistics, storage and redistribution services, textile industries, petrochemicals, projects of remanufacturing and recycling of plastic materials and many other projects with added value for the national economy.
The third free zone is the free zone in Sohar, which was established by the Royal Decree No. (123/2010) on 20th December 2010 and managed by Sohar Free Zone company.
The Information Technology Authority works to transform the Sultanate to a knowledge society through the Digital Oman and its different projects. The Sultanate focuses on its national strategy to build a society of digital Oman and e-government to find an advanced infrastructure for Information Technology, such as electronic networks and Data Conservation Centers, information security and electronic portals. Moreover, this authority aims to build national skills in the field of information technology in the community through training projects and strengthen the capacity of community members to acquire the computer and access to the Internet quickly.
The Sultanate started to implement the national strategy for digital Oman society and e-government on three major tracks, which are integrated with each other to achieve comprehensive community development in the field of information and communication technology.
The Sultanate achieved the sixteenth place globally in standard e-participation in a report e-government of the United Nations in 2012. The report refers to the development that the Sultanate achieves in the area of information technology. In the same report, the Sultanate also achieved the sixth place that affirms its improvement in the provision of e-government services.
The United Nations report for e-government, which is issued every two years is the most important indicators to measure the progress of countries in the world in the field of online services, quality of e-participation, and evaluation of available communications services.
The report of the e-government of the United Nations in 2012 has considered the Sultanate among the 25 countries in the world that interested to provide government services through mobile phone. It also provides a special section in their government for special groups, whether women or children or the elderly or illiterate or non-sighted.
Million Dates Palm Project
The million dates palm project began to implement model farm in the Wilayat of Nizwa on an area of about 700 acres by using a modern technologies in agriculture and irrigation. This project of the cultivation of million dates palm was ordered to be implemented by His Majesty the Sultan in November 2009, under the supervision of the Directorate General of Million Dates Palm Project affiliated to the Diwan of Royal Court.
The Directorate General has drilled 60 productive wells in the A'Dhahira Governorate to provide the needed water of the project. It has also commissioned a study on the possibility of providing water for the project in the area between the Wilayat og Adam and Sinaw in the Governorate of North Al Sharqiya, and will add water to the project through the work with the Public Authority for Electricity and Water in North and South Al Sharqiya.
The Directorate General conducted laboratory empirical study on the validity of treated wastewater in the irrigation of dates palm, and performed analyzes of the fruits and tissues palm, soil and water. Likewise, it identified two sources to provide the needed dates palm for the project, the first is vegetative plants to be provided through the purchase from farmers, the other source is through textile plants produced by tissue culture laboratory.
The tourism sector in the Sultanate of Oman
In recognition of the advanced position for the tourism sector in the Sultanate, Muscat was selected as the capital of Arab Tourism in 2012. The Ministry of Tourism has organized many events and activities that highlight the features of tourism potentials that are abound in the natural Omani environment and cultural heritage.
Selecting Muscat as the capital of Arab Tourism came after it achieved all the required standards to win this title, the foremost of which is accessing to it easily through Muscat International Airport or through Port Sultan Qaboos or by road. The second is the tourist attractions and archaeological sites that are varied from the natural to historical landmarks. The third is the availability of the necessary infrastructure like roads network in the city, wastewater projects, electricity, water, telecommunications and Internet services. The fourth is the availability of tourism services, such as queries and counseling tourism offices, banks, hospitals, postal, tourism companies and taking part in the alert system for natural disasters and satellite channels, restaurants and tourist maps, and providing security for tourists. The fifth is the availability of hotel capacity in different levels from 5-star hotels, 4 stars, 3-stars, two-stars and one star. Also, the sixth standard is the events, activities, entertainment and shopping centers, theaters, cinemas and sports activities. The seventh is diversity of the tourist patterns including environmental tourism, conferences and cultural tourism, marine tourism, desert tourism, medical tourism and sports tourism. The eighth standard is the suitable climate around the year. The last one is attractiveness of the Arab Tourism, and the prominent place at the international level in some tourist patterns.
Muscat came in the second place after London in the list of the top ten global cities worth to visit in 2012. The Eighth Five-Year (2011 - 2015) plan includes supporting the private sector by providing residential facilities and the expansion in the provision of services and tourist facilities in the various governorates of the Sultanate. It also includes the exploitation of some of the sites and areas that enjoy a mild climate during the summer, and establishing the necessary infrastructure to attract greater numbers of tourists from inside and outside the Sultanate during the summer months. Furthermore, the plan includes appropriations reach about RO 105 million for tourism projects as the government contributes in projects of the integrated tourism complexes.
Oman develops plans to raise the number of tourists who are coming to the country from 1.5 million tourists to 2.5 million tourists by the end of the current five-year plan in 2015. It is also seeking to achieve the goal through the intensification of promotional campaigns among GCC states, European, Asian and American countries, besides participation in global travel fairs that held in various countries around the world.
The Dhofar Governorate is major tourist destination for Omani citizens and GCC nationals during the summer due to its attractive climate and mild temperatures, which do not exceed 22° C and down to below 15 ° C on the mountains.